Model flowchart not showing reassignment schedule component. Note that the engine produces only the extra power that the truck needs to move. This will significantly impact both tire wear and fuel consumption and is characterized as such in the model. Much of the data deals with the importance of tire pressure to balance-off the load. The Aggressiveness Factor allows the impact of driver variations on the stochastic simulation to be studied. An interactive simulation model to compare an autonomous haulage truck system with a manually-operated system. Tire temperature is a major aspect of this model which also depends on these factors together with ambient temperature.
Fixed delays are shift changes, preventive maintenance; predictable driver breaks, refueling, blasting, etc. For a travelled distance of 1 km, a regular tire revolves times while a CAT tire revolves 86 times. Such may not be the case with an AHS fleet. Tire wear can be characterized in a number of ways Meech et al. The autonomous mode shows an improvement in fuel consumption of 5. It must be remembered however, that tire temperature is linked to speed and load such that as a truck speeds up, the temperature will also rise.
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If the safe distance is equal to or less than 50 m and Truck 1 is travelling faster, then the speed of Truck 1 is thrsis to that of the forward truck. Using autonomous haulage trucks improves safety, maintenance and equipment life, optimizes fuel consumption, and provides streamlined operations with increasingly accurate production systems. A second term called the Stability Factor Table 8 characterizes the degree to which these terms change during a test run. juljana
Although these examples show a small impact on truck performance; wind variation changes have been included in the model. Othello’s downfall essay pdf. Automated technologies are being applied today in both large-scale industrial mines as well as small-scale mining operations.
To be successful, an automation project must identify and analyze levels of interest, expectation, priorities, and influence of stakeholders in the early stages, as well as develop a management plan that incorporates quality control, risk management, communication plans, parrira exit strategies.
In this example, the value is Weather information and road condition are input into the model at the beginning of the run.
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The model uses fuzzy logic to determine this factor as described in Section 5. Without analysis, implementation will be slow. If a truck requires maintenance or a driver needs a break lunch, coffee, or shift changethe truck also drives to parking, but only after it has dumped its load.
Example of an unstable situation in which the idle time is not long enough for the current driving conditions to allow tires to reach a stable level. Good thesis about education.
Despite years of innovation and testing, no machine is perfect; all technologies are liable to fail or misbehave at some point, and the ethical julianz legal issues that arise from an incident may be unprecedented the first time Royal Academy of Engineering, Values were higher during events that occurred when the driver was multi-tasking.
The resistance of this segment, which in this case is caused thsis grade, rolling resistance and a small amount of drag, produces a truck deceleration of 0. Road segments and lengths of each route from Lucy mine.
Drilling and blasting have been automated, but not to the extent of a fully-autonomous system Thompson,Girmscheid and Walti, The traction coefficient changes in the model 1A 48 according to road conditions and weather and can drop to as low as 0.
Applying the allowed mechanical speed, the brake can be used safely without exceeding the cooling capacity.
Effort should be given to establishing performance measures since they provide a “warning system” through different comparisons: Data are just numbers unless they are well-structured and analysed.
An economic assessment of an AHS system versus a manual fleet shows an after-tax incremental discounted cash flow rate of return of The maximum allowed speeds from the retarder curve are larreira in the ExtendSim internal database. The presence of certain attributes or the absence thewis specific constraints at any particular mine may be necessary to include to ensure overall performance improvement, i.
One term ki relates to energy Load x Speed2 used to drive the truck while the other term KT relates to the force acting on the tire expressed as a momentum term Load x Speed. Precipitation and wind data for the Lucy mine.
There is a large amount of equipment that relies on control technology and wireless systems that depend on system bandwidth and latency issues see Appendix As such, wind energy represents a small percentage to total truck. I would like to express my endless thanks to Professor Marcello Veiga who was a very important guide during my first steps as an immigrant to Canada and as an engineer looking for opportunities in Canada.
Frequency of the generated random data????????????? Simulation of mine haulage systems has been around since the s and has been applied to study problems such as: When the driver presses the brake pedal, the engine only produces idling power.
College application jjliana sample harvard. To predict future results, it is important to know the degree to which an autonomous haulage system can approach or exceed a manual system.